Debunking Tech Myths and Misconceptions: Mythbusting 5G Safety Concerns

By Adedayo Ebenezer Oyetoke Published on: February 28th 2024 | 9 mins, 1789 words Views: 231

What is 5G and how is it different from previous generations?

5G stands for fifth-generation wireless technology, which is the latest evolution of mobile networks. 5G aims to provide faster, more reliable, and more efficient data transmission than previous generations, such as 4G or 3G.

One of the main differences between 5G and previous generations is the use of higher-frequency radio waves, also known as millimeter waves (mmWave). These waves can carry more data and offer lower latency (the time it takes for data to travel from one point to another), but they also have shorter range and are more easily blocked by obstacles, such as buildings or trees. To overcome these challenges, 5G networks rely on a denser network of small cells (base stations) that can transmit and receive signals from multiple directions. These small cells are connected to the core network through fiber-optic cables or wireless links.

Another difference between 5G and previous generations is the use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, which allows multiple antennas to send and receive data simultaneously, increasing the capacity and efficiency of the network. 5G also uses beamforming, which is a technique that directs radio waves to specific devices, reducing interference and improving signal quality.

What are some common myths about 5G and health risks?

Despite the scientific and technological innovations behind 5G, some people have expressed concerns about its potential impact on human health and the environment. Some of the most common myths and misconceptions are:

Myth 1: 5G causes cancer or other diseases: This myth is based on the assumption that 5G radio waves are harmful because they are more powerful or have higher frequencies than previous generations. However, this is not true. 5G radio waves are still part of the non-ionizing spectrum, which means they do not have enough energy to break the chemical bonds in DNA or damage cells. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is no evidence that exposure to non-ionizing radio waves, at levels below the international guidelines, causes adverse health effects.

Myth 2: 5G affects fertility or reproductive health: This myth is based on the fear that 5G radio waves can interfere with the functioning of the reproductive organs or the development of the fetus. However, there is no scientific basis for this claim. A systematic review of studies on the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on fertility and reproduction found no consistent evidence of adverse outcomes, such as reduced sperm quality, altered hormone levels, or congenital anomalies.

Myth 3: 5G weakens the immune system or makes people more susceptible to COVID-19: This myth is based on the speculation that 5G radio waves can impair the body's natural defense mechanisms or facilitate the transmission of the coronavirus. However, there is no plausible mechanism or empirical support for this hypothesis. The WHO has stated that viruses cannot travel on radio waves or mobile networks, and that COVID-19 is spread through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces. Moreover, a study on the effects of RF-EMF on immune cells found no evidence of immunosuppression or inflammation.

What are some of the benefits of 5G for society and the economy?

While 5G is not a magic bullet that can solve all the world's problems, it does offer some significant advantages over previous generations of wireless technology. Some of the potential benefits of 5G are:

Faster internet speeds and improved connectivity: 5G can deliver data speeds up to 100 times faster than 4G, with peak speeds of up to 20 gigabits per second (Gbps). This means that users can download or stream high-quality content, such as 4K videos or virtual reality, in seconds. 5G can also support more devices per unit area, up to one million per square kilometer, enabling more people and things to be connected at the same time.

Enhanced telecommunication and remote services: 5G can enable more reliable and seamless communication, especially in areas where the network coverage or infrastructure is limited or unreliable. 5G can also facilitate the delivery of remote services, such as telemedicine, teleeducation, or telework, which can improve access to health care, education, or employment opportunities, especially for rural or marginalized communities.

Innovation and development of new applications and industries: 5G can enable the emergence and growth of new applications and industries that rely on high-speed, low-latency, and massive connectivity. Some examples are autonomous vehicles, smart cities, internet of things, artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and cloud computing. These applications and industries can create new markets, jobs, and value for society and the economy.

How does 5G affect the environment?

5G is a new wireless technology that can offer faster and more reliable data transmission than previous generations. However, 5G also has some environmental impacts, both positive and negative. Here are some of the main effects of 5G on the environment:

Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions: 5G networks require more energy to operate than previous generations, due to the higher frequency of radio waves, the denser network of small cells, and the increased data traffic. This could lead to higher greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change. However, 5G networks are also more efficient and can reduce the energy consumption per unit of data. Moreover, 5G can enable the development of smart grids, renewable energy sources, and energy-saving applications, which can offset the emissions and lower the environmental footprint of 5G. According to a study by Swisscom¹, 5G networks will have lower emissions than 4G networks by 2030, assuming that both expand in line with expected data traffic growth.

Resource extraction and waste generation: 5G networks require more infrastructure and devices than previous generations, such as antennas, base stations, fiber-optic cables, and smartphones. This means that more natural resources, such as metals, minerals, and plastics, need to be extracted, processed, and transported, which can have negative impacts on the environment, such as land degradation, water pollution, and biodiversity loss. Additionally, more electronic waste will be generated as old devices become obsolete and are discarded, which can pose risks to human health and the environment, such as toxic substances, soil contamination, and resource depletion. Therefore, it is important to promote the responsible and sustainable use and disposal of 5G infrastructure and devices, such as recycling, reusing, or repairing.

Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF): 5G networks use higher-frequency radio waves than previous generations, which can penetrate deeper into the skin and cause heating effects. Some people have expressed concerns that exposure to RF-EMF from 5G networks could cause health problems, such as cancer, infertility, or immune system disorders. However, there is no scientific evidence to support these claims, as 5G radio waves are still part of the non-ionizing spectrum, which means they do not have enough energy to damage DNA or cells. Moreover, 5G networks comply with the international guidelines and standards for RF-EMF exposure, which are based on the best available scientific knowledge and are regularly reviewed and updated. Furthermore, 5G networks use beamforming, which is a technique that directs radio waves to specific devices, reducing interference and exposure.

In conclusion, 5G is a complex and evolving technology that can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment, depending on how it is deployed and used. It is therefore essential to balance the benefits and risks of 5G, and to adopt a precautionary and holistic approach to its development and regulation, taking into account the environmental, social, and economic aspects. It is also important to rely on factual information and critical thinking when encountering tech-related claims, and to consult credible sources and experts for guidance and advice..

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How to approach tech myths and misconceptions with critical thinking and factual information

5G is a revolutionary technology that can bring many benefits to society and the economy, but it also faces some challenges and controversies, especially regarding its safety and health effects. However, many of the fears and myths surrounding 5G are not based on scientific evidence, but on misinformation, speculation, or conspiracy theories.

Therefore, it is important to approach tech myths and misconceptions with critical thinking and factual information, rather than succumbing to fear-mongering or sensationalism. Some of the ways to do this are:

Check the source and credibility of the information: Not all sources of information are equally reliable or trustworthy. Some may have ulterior motives, hidden agendas, or biases that influence their claims or arguments. Therefore, it is advisable to verify the source and credibility of the information, such as the author, the publisher, the date, the references, or the reviews. It is also helpful to consult multiple sources and compare different perspectives and opinions.

Evaluate the evidence and logic of the claims: Not all claims are equally valid or sound. Some may be based on faulty reasoning, fallacies, or misinterpretations of data or facts. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the evidence and logic of the claims, such as the quality, quantity, relevance, or consistency of the data or facts. It is also useful to ask questions and seek clarifications or explanations for the claims.

Seek expert opinions and scientific consensus: Not all opinions are equally informed or authoritative. Some may be based on personal beliefs, preferences, or experiences, rather than on objective knowledge, research, or analysis. Therefore, it is wise to seek expert opinions and scientific consensus, such as from reputable organizations, institutions, or professionals, who have the qualifications, expertise, or experience to comment on the topic. It is also beneficial to follow the latest developments and updates on the topic, as science and technology are constantly evolving and advancing.

By applying these strategies, we can become more informed and responsible consumers and users of technology, and avoid being misled or manipulated by tech myths and misconceptions. We can also appreciate and enjoy the benefits of 5G, while being aware and mindful of its challenges and limitations.


1. World Health Organization. (2020). 5G mobile networks and health

2. Zarei, S., Mortazavi, S. M. J., Mehdizadeh, A. R., Jalalipour, M., Borzou, S., Taeb, S., ... & Haghani, M. (2019). A systematic review on the effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on fertility and reproduction. Journal of environmental health science & engineering, 17(4), 507-518.

3. World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Mythbusters.  

4. Sagar, S., Dongus, S., Schoeni, A., Roser, K., Eeftens, M., Struchen, B., ... & Röösli, M. (2018). Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in everyday microenvironments in Europe: A systematic literature review. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology, 28(2), 147-160.

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